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Glossary

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Term

 

                  

 

Explanation

 

  AA/C    Air conditioning
   Air receiver   Components of the compressed air system that receive air and provide compressed air storage capacity.
   Air tightness level (buildings)   The degree of air leakage or air infiltration in a building
   Amp (Ampere)   A measure of electrical current in a circuit
        
        
  BBallast   A lighting component that controls the current in a lamp.
   Bar   A unit of for measuring pressure
   Bar(g)   Bar gauge
   Black-bulb thermostat   A control thermostat normally used in radiant heating systems
   Blank screen-saver (computers)   Computer screen saver that leaves the screen blank.
   Blowdown (boiler)   In a boiler, it is the process of expeling water, dissolved and suspended solids in that water and sludge.
   Blow-off device (compressed air)   Air amplifying device capable of delivering high volume air flow.
   BMS (Building Management System)   An automated system for managing a building's services and other related aspects
   Boiler flow temperature   The temperature at which the water leaves the boiler in a wet heating system
   Btu   British Thermal Unit: a unit for measuring the quantity of heat energy necessary to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree fahrenheit.
   Building controls   Units or systems used to control building services such as heating or lighting
   Burner damper (boilers)   A movable plate used to control air flow to the burner in a boiler
        
        
        
  CCalibrate   The process of checking and re-establishing the accuracy of a measuring instrument, e.g. a digital thermometer
   Calorifier (hot water)   A pressure vessel containing tubes through which hot water passes.
   Cathodic protection   A treatment used to prevent corrosion of a metal by making the metal a cathode
   Centrifugal compressor   Compressors that generate pressure by increasing the air's velocity using a rotating impeller.
   CER   Commission for Energy Regulation
   CFL   Compact Flourescent Light
   CHP    Combined Heat and Power
   Circulating pump (hot water)   Pump used to keep (hot) water circulating through a distribution system
   CO2   Carbon Dioxide
   Co-efficient of Performance (COP)   A measure of the effectiveness of an air conditioning unit (or chiller) in converting electricity into cooling or heat. Once you buy a unit, the COP cannot be changed. For a given appliance, the COP in cooling mode will differ from the COP in heating mode. Usually the COP will be supplied with an appliance?s technical literature. If it is not given it may be calculated simply: COPcooling = rated cooling output [kW] / rated electricity input [kW]. < /P > < P >  < /P >< /P >< /P >< /P >< /P >< /P >< /P >
   Combined heat and power (CHP)   A unit that simultaneously generates heat and electricity. Also knows as 'cogeneration'
   Compact fluorescent lamp   A compact low energy lamp
   Compressed air eductor   Air powered device which uses Venturi effects to move air
   Condensate (compressed air)   The product of the condensation of water vapour in the air entering a compressor. Condensate is often contaminated with particles and oil and must be removed and properly disposed.
   Condensate (steam)   Condensed steam
   Condenser (outdoor unit)   The device in which a refrigerant condenses from a gas to a liquid when it is depressurized or cooled in an air conditioning, refrigeration or heat pump system
   Condenser coil   The coils through which a refrigerant is circulated and releases heat to the surroundings in an air conditioning, refrigeration or heat pump system.
   CRT computer screen   Cathode ray tube computer monitor. These are the traditional 'bulky' screens as opposed to the modern flat screens.
   CUSUM   Cumulative sum. A technique for analysing energy data that uses the difference between the base line (expected or standard consumption) and the actual consumption over the base line period of time.
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  DDCMNR   Department for Communications, Marine and Natural Resources
   Damper (flue)   A movable plate used to control flue gas flow
   Degree Days   A unit for measuring the extent to which the outdoor daily average temperature falls below an assumed base temperature, usually 15.5oC. They are used to take into account the changes in the weather (temperatures) in analysing heating energy use.
   DG   Distributed Generation
   DHW   Domestic Hot Water
   Digital thermometers   Thermometers that display results in digital format.
   Discharge lamp   A lamp in which light is produced by an electric discharge through a gas, metal vapour or a mixture of gases and vapours
   DSO   Distribution System Operator
        
        
        
  EElectro-magnetic control gear   Lighting control gear that consists primarily of transformer-like copper windings on a steel or iron core 
   EMAS   Eco Management and Audit Scheme
   EMS   Energy Management System
   Energy Manager   The person responsible for the management of energy within an organisation.
   Energy Map Audit   An audit of the operation of the Energy MAP.
   Energy MAP Review   A review of the the operation of the Energy MAP. Top management are responsible for carrying out the management review of the Energy MAP
   Energy performance indicator   A value against which you compare your energy performance.
   Energy Star   A US and European programme for the classification of energy efficient products
   Energy Star Label   The label used by the Energy Star programme to identify energy efficient products
   Energy Team   A group established to manage energy within an organisation.
   Environmental label   Labels used to identify environmentally preferable products.
   ESCO   Energy Services Company
   European Eco-Label   The environmental label of the European Union used to identify environmentally preferable products and services
   European Union Energy Labels   

A European Union label that provides information on a product?s energy consumption and rates it on a scale of A to G, with A being the most efficient

.

   Evaporator (Indoor unit)   A mechanical device that transforms a liquid into a gaseous state.
   Exposed thermal mass   Refers to a building's capacity to absorb heat energy. Materials such as concrete slabs have a high thermal mass, and if left exposed within a building can be used to absorb heat and therefore moderate internal temperatures.
        
        
        
  FFan coil unit   A unit in which a fan blows air over a heat exchanger coil containing a circulating fluid and distributes heat or cool air to different areas.
   FLA (Full load amps)   The current (amperage) drawn by a motor when operating under full load
   Flat screens   Modern computer monitors that are 'flat' in appearance and use less energy than the traditional computer monitors. These employ TFT LCD technology used in portable computer screens.
   Flow restrictor   Device that reduces the quantity of water flowing through a water tap or pipe
   Flue damper   A movable plate used to control air flow in the flue.
   Flue gas analyser   A devices for analysing the gas resulting from the combustion of a fuel that is emitted to the flue.
   Frost protection thermostat   A heating system thermostat used to prevent damage in the event of frost and low external temperatures.
   Full load amps   The current (amperage) drawn by a motor when operating under full load
        
        
        
  GGrip-on ammeter   A portable device that can be freely attached to an electric cable and used to measure current
   gW   Gigawatt
   gWh   Gigawatt hour
        
        
        
  HHeat removal   The removal of heat from a source or area
   Hibernate (computers)   The state of activity of a computer when least energy is being used
   High bay fittings (lighting)   Usually refers to industrial or retail lighting mounted at about 5m or more above ground level.
   High frequency control gear   Lighting control gear that typically operate fluorescent lamps at high frequencies. These are based on state electronic components and help reduce lighting energy consumption.
   Humidistat   A device for measuring the relative humidity in the air
   Humidistat control   Control based on the relative humidity of the air in a space
   HVAC   Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning
   Hydraulic tool   Tool that operate using hydraulic principles
        
        
        
  IInfra-red coated halogen lamps   A halogen lamp is an incandescent lamp with a filament that is surrounded by halogen gases. An infra-red coating can be placed on the filament tube to redirect infra-red heat back on to the filament thus increasing its temperature and resulting in less electrical energy being required.
   Incandescent lamp   A lamp in which a filament is heated by an electric current to produce light. These are the familiar light bulbs you use at home.
   Interdisciplinary design team   A building design team that contains members from different disciplines, such as architects, engineers, quantity surveyors etc.
   ISO 14001   The international standard for environmental management systems
   Isolation valves (heating system)   Isolation valves: valves that control the distribution of heating or hot water to specific areas or zones
        
        
        
  JJoule   A measure of energy
        
        
        
  KKilowatt hour (kWh)   A unit of energy. Often in relation to electricity, but also for other fuel sources. One kWh is the energy used by a 1000 Watt device (kilowatt) running continuously for one hour.
   kVa   Kilo volt amps, a unit of power
   kW   Kilowatt
        
        
        
  LLED   Light emitting diode
   Legionella   Bacteria that causes Legionnaires' Disease
   Level of Air-tightness   The amount of air leakage or air infiltration in a building
   Light meter   A device that measures the light level (illuminance) at a surface or location.
   Limescale   Deposits of lime that form as a result of water flow in pipes and equipment
   LNG   Liquefied natural gas
   Low voltage halogen lamps   Low-voltage tungsten-halogen lamps are incandescent lamps that use a halogen gas surrounding the filament and operate at 6V, 12V and 24V ratings.
   LPG   Liquid Petroleum Gas
   LTHW   Low temperature hot water
   Lumen   The unit that describes the quantity of light emitted by a lamp or received at a surface
   Lumens per watt   The amount of lumens produced per watt of power
   LUX   The unit used to measure 'Illuminance', which is the amount of light falling on a surface of unit area. One lux is equal to one lumen per square metre.
        
        
        
  MMains voltage mini-CFL fittings   Small compact fluorescent fitting that can be connected to the mains voltage
   Maintenance strategy   The approach to maintenance, whether it be reactive, planned or other strategies
   Maximum Demand   Maximum Demand is the highest level of electrical demand in the monitored period. This is monitored during particular intervals and used for a specific type of electrical tariff where a special meter records the maximum demand for electricity at short intervals, e.g. each half hour or fifteen minute period.
   MEC   Maximum Export Capacity
   Mechanical heat removal   Removal of heat from a building or process by mechanical means, e.g. by means of extractor fans
   Mercury vapour lamp   A lamp in which light is produced by an arc between two electrodes surrounded by mercury vapour.
   MIC   Maximum Import Capacity: 
   MoU   Memorandum of Understanding
   MRSO   Meter Registration System Operator
   mW   Megawatt
        
        
        
  N

NO2

 

   Nitrogen dioxide
   Natural heat removal   Removal of heat from a building or process by natural means, i.e. without the aid of mechanical or electrical plant or equipment
   Night hours (electricity tarriffs)   The period of time during the night used for the application of certain electricity tarriffs. Under Maximum Demand tariffs day and night units are separately metered.
   Night load (electricity tarriffs)   Electricity load during night hours
   Normalise   Refers to a process of treating energy data in order to deal with external influencing factors
   Nox   Nitrogen oxides
        
        
        
  OO & M   Operation and maintenance
   Objective   A site goal that is consistent with the energy policy and takes significant energy users and energy saving opportunities into account.
   Optimum start   A heating system control that adjusts heating start up times according to external weather conditions. Heating is turned on later on milder days as shorter warm-up times are required.
   Oxygen trim control   A method of controling the amount of air (oxygen) delivered for fuel combustion.
        
        
        
  PParameters and settings of the building control strategies   Criteria used to establish control strategies for building services. Criteria could include operational hours, daylighting, weather conditions and others.
   Payback period   The time taken for a project to recover its outlay. For energy saving projects, payback in simple terms is the capital cost divided by average annual savings.
   Performance based specifications   Specification of a particular performance level for the item rather than identifying the technical characteristics in detail. In essence, it specifies the end result, but not how to achieve it.
   Pneumatic tool   Tool that operate using air pressure
   Post project evaluation   The evaluation of a project after it has been implemented.
   Power factor correction capacitors   Power factor is the ratio of actual power being used in a circuit, expressed in watts or kilowatts, to the power that is apparently being drawn from a power source. By installing capacitors the Power Factor can be altered.
   Power logger   A device for recording electrical power
   Predictive maintenance   Maintenance based on analysis of the condition of an item or facility that checks if it is operating as required, and if not, corrective action is taken.
   Pressure-regulating valve   Valves that regulate the pressure in a compressed air system
   Preventative maintenance   Maintenance actions performed on the basis of a set time or run-time interval.
   Process vapour or aerosol   The end result of atomising a liquid using compressed air.
   PSI   Pounds per square inch (an Imperial unit for measuring pressure)
   Pulsation dampening   The dampening of the pressure pulsations typically associated with reciprocating compressors
   PV   Photovoltaic. PVs convert solar radiation (energy from the sun) into electricity.
        
        
        
  QQuad   One quadrillion (1015) BTUs: An amount of energy equal to 170 million barrels of oil. 
        
        
        
  RR & D   Research and development
   

R2

 

   Mathematical notation for 'goodness of fit' or level of relationship between 2 or more variables
   Radiant heating   A heating system that transfers heat to objects and surfaces within a space primarily by (infrared) radiation.
   Rated cooling output   The cooling output of a device under specific or nominal operating conditions
   Rated electricity input   The electrical output of a device under specific or nominal operating conditions
   RE   Renewable energy. This includes solar, wind, wave, hydro, geothermal and biofuels such as wood, waste and energy crops.
   Reciprocating compressor   Compressor driven by a piston having a reciprocating motion in a cylinder.
   Refrigerant sight glass   A 'window' where you can observe the coolant liquid in a refrigeration circuit.
   Regression analysis   A technique for analysing energy data that analyses the association between one (dependent) variable and one or more other (independent) variables 
   Relative humidity   The amount of water in the air or more precisely the ratio, in percent, of the actual amount of water vapor in a body of air to the maximum amount that body can hold at a given temperature.
   Reliability centered maintenance (RCM)   A process used to determine the maintenance requirements of a physical asset in its operating context. Essentially RCM prioritises maintenance according to the importance of an item and the probability of failure and matches these with the resources available.
   Resources   Inputs into a process, including capital, labour and land
   Retrofitting   The activity of replacing existing plant, equipment, fixtures or fittings
   Review   An assessment of performance and operation
   Rotary screw compressor   Compressor driven by two rotors within a casing where the rotors compress the air internally
        
        
        
  SSequence control   The control of two or more equivalent items of plant in order to achieve optimum performance. For example, boiler sequence controls may operate two or more heating boilers in order to achieve optimum performance of the heating system.
   Set point   The point at which the desired operating parameter is set
   Set point (temperature)   The point at which the desired temperature of a heated or cooled space is set
   Short cycling (boilers)   A condition in which a boiler fires even though there may not be a real heating or hot water demand.
   

SO2

 

   Sulpher Dioxide
   SON   High pressure sodium lighting.
   Split air conditioning unit   Small packaged air-conditioning units are proliferating. They are often referred to as DX (direct exchange) units, or split a/c units. Each unit has an indoor unit (evaporator) and outdoor unit (condenser). They are generally installed to provide cooling, but are generally capable of heating too. 
   Standby (operation)   The condition in which an item of equipment is ready for operation but not in operation. Stanby conditions should use less power
   Standing losses (boilers)   Boiler casing losses and stack ventilation losses during boiler on and off periods.
   Steam trap   An automatic control valve that allows for the release of condensate and non-condensable gases while maintianing steam in the system.
   Sub-meter (electricity)   Usually refers to meters that are not 'main' meters that directly record electricity supply
        
        
        
  TT5 fluorescent lighting   Fluorescent (tube) lamps with a diameter of 16 mm
   Target   A detailed performance requirement (quantified wherever practicable) based on an objective.  The target contributes to achieving the stated objective.
   Tariff   The payment scheme used for you electricity/gas use
   Temperature setpoint   The point at which the desired temperature of a heated or cooled space is set
   Thermostat   A device for measuring the temperature in a space
   Thermostatic radiator valves   Valves attached to a heat emitter or radiator that directly control its temperature
   Three phase load (3-phase load)   Phase is a term used to describe alternating current. To distribute AC power it is more efficient to use three circuits that are 'out of phase', with the result that there is always voltage in at least one wire. Three-phase power removes the need for a neutral or 'return path'.
   Total dissolved solids (TDS)   The solid particles that are dissolved in steam or water.
   Total productive maintenance   An approach to maintenance that brings different functions together such as operations, maintenance, purchasing and other support services to develop and implement a formal structure for maintaining a building, plant, fixtures and fittings.
   TSO   Transmission System Operator
        
        
        
  UUninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) system   An alternative power source used to power equipment if normal power service is interrupted or falls below acceptable levels.
   Unit of Energy   

different fuels are metered in different units: kWh, BTU, litre or M3

 

        
        
        
  VVacuum eductor   Device used with compressed air to generate a vacuum. This is a more expensive way of generating a vacuum and should be replaced with motor driven vacuum pumps.
   Variable speed drive   Motor drives that can operate at different speeds
   Variable speed inverter   Variable frequency controller that controls drive speed
        
        
        
  WWattless Charges   Wattless Charges are caused by the operation of specific electrical load on your site as some items using power may require an amount of wattless energy for their operation. Wattless charges can be eliminated by the installation of power factor correction capacitors. 
   Waste heat   The unused heat produced from a process
   Waste heat boiler   A boiler that receives energy input from the combustible exhaust gases from a separate fuel-burning process
   Water softening   The treatment of water to reduce its level of lime. Hard water is water that contains greater levels of lime.
   Wattage   The number of watts of power
   Wattless Power   Power that is ?borrowed? from the load and returned to the power source each cycle. Also called 'reaactive' power
   Weather compensation   A heating system control that adjusts the flow temperature in the system in response to changes in external temperatures. Overheating is prevented on mild days. 
   Winter Peak Demand Scheme   A scheme that offers electricity customers an opportunity to receive payment in return for committing to reducing their demand for electricity for specific hours during the winter months.
        
        
        
 XX-ray   A type of electromagnetic radiation having low energy levels
   Xyloid Coal   Brown coal or lignite derived from wood
   Xenon   Heavy gas used in specialized electric lamps
        
        
        
 Y    No entries for letter Y
        
        
        
  Z   No entries for letter Z

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